PMP Definitions: C

Many of the words defined here have broader, and in some cases different, dictionary definitions. In some cases, a single glossary term consists of multiple words (e.g., root cause analysis).

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Definitions: C
Cause and Effect Diagram A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause.
Change A modification to any formally controlled deliverable, project management plan component, or project document.
Change Control A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected.
Change Control Tools Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.
Change Log A comprehensive list of changes submitted during the project and their current status.
Change Management Plan A component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of its authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.
Change Request A formal proposal to modify a document, deliverable, or baseline.
Checklist Analysis A technique for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness.
Check sheets A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.
Claim A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer, or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract, such as for a disputed change.
Claims Administration The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
Close Project or Phase The process of finalizing all activities for the project, phase, or contract.
Closing Process Group The process(es) performed to formally complete or close a project, phase, or contract.
Code of Accounts A numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
Collect Requirements The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
Colocation An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
Communication Methods A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Communication Models A description, analogy, or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
Communication Requirements Analysis An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
Communications Management Plan A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.
Communication Styles Assessment A technique to identify the preferred communication method, format, and content for stakeholders for planned communication activities.
Communication Technology Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Conduct Procurements The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
Configuration Management Plan A component of the project management plan that describes how to identify and account for project artifacts under configuration control, and how to record and report changes to them.
Configuration Management System A collection of procedures used to track project artifacts and monitor and control changes to these artifacts.
Conformance Within the quality management system, conformance is a general concept of delivering results that fall within the limits that define acceptable variation for a quality requirement.
Constraint A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project, program, portfolio, or process.
Context Diagrams A visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it.
Contingency An event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project that may be accounted for with a reserve.
Contingency Reserve Time or money allocated in the schedule or cost baseline for known risks with active response strategies.
Contingent Response Strategies Responses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs.
Contract A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
Contract Change Control System The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
Control Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control Account A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement.
Control Chart A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Control Costs The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and manage changes to the cost baseline.
Control Limits The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline or mean of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart, which reflects the expected variation in the data. See also specification limits.
Control Procurements The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, making changes and corrections as appropriate, and closing out contracts.
Control Quality The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality management activities to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete, correct, and meet customer expectations.
Control Resources The process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned, as well as monitoring the planned versus actual utilization of resources and performing corrective action as necessary.
Control Schedule The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project schedule and manage changes to the schedule baseline.
Control Scope The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
Corrective Action An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan.
Cost Aggregation Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project's WBS or for a given cost control account.
Cost Baseline The approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
Cost-Benefit Analysis A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
Cost Management Plan A component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled.
Cost of Quality (CoQ) All costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non conformance to requirements, appraisal of the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failure to meet requirements.
Cost Performance Index (CPI) A measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
Cost Plus Award Fee Contract (CPAF) A category of contract that involves payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus an award fee representing seller profit.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF) A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller's allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract (CPIF) A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller's allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
Cost-Reimbursable Contract A type of contract involving payment to the seller for the seller's actual costs, plus a fee typically representing the seller's profit.
Cost Variance (CV) The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost.
Crashing A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.
Create WBS The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
Criteria Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
Critical Path The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration.
Critical Path Activity Any activity on the critical path in a project schedule.
Critical Path Method (CPM) A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of schedule flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
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