PMP Definitions: P

Many of the words defined here have broader, and in some cases different, dictionary definitions. In some cases, a single glossary term consists of multiple words (e.g., root cause analysis).

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Definitions: P
Parametric Estimating An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
Path Convergence A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one predecessor.
Path Divergence A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one successor.
Percent Complete An estimate expressed as a percent of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component.
Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) Integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.
Performance Reviews A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.
Perform Integrated Change Control The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating the decisions.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis The process of prioritizing individual project risks for further analysis or action by assessing their probability of occurrence and impact as well as other characteristics.
Phase Gate A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to the next phase, to continue with modification, or to end a project or program.
Plan Communications Management The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communication activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project.
Plan Cost Management The process of defining how the project costs will be estimated, budgeted, managed, monitored, and controlled.
Planned Value (PV) The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work.
Planning Package A work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities. See also control account.
Planning Process Group Those processes required to establish the scope of the project,refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
Plan Procurement Management The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
Plan Quality Management The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.
Plan Resource Management The process of defining how to estimate, acquire, manage, and utilize physical and team resources.
Plan Risk Management The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
Plan Risk Responses The process of developing options, selecting strategies, and agreeing on actions to address overall project risk exposure, as well as to treat individual project risks.
Plan Schedule Management The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
Plan Scope Management The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project and product scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.
Plan Stakeholder Engagement The process of developing approaches to involve project stakeholders, based on their needs, expectations, interests, and potential impact on the project.
Plurality Decisions made by the largest block in a group, even if a majority is not achieved.
Policy A structured pattern of actions adopted by an organization such that the organization's policy can be explained as a set of basic principles that govern the organization's conduct.
Portfolio Projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.
Portfolio Management The centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives.
Practice A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools.
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
Precedence Relationship A logical dependency used in the precedence diagramming method.
Predecessor Activity An activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule.
Predictive Life Cycle A form of project life cycle in which the project scope, time, and cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle.
Preventive Action An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan.
Probability and Impact Matrix A grid for mapping the probability of occurrence of each risk and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
Procedure An established method of accomplishing a consistent performance or result, a procedure typically can be described as the sequence of steps that will be used to execute a process.
Process A systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs.
Procurement Audits The review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness.
Procurement Documents The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer's Invitation for bid, invitation for negotiations, request for information, request for quotation, request for proposal, and seller's responses.
Procurement Documentation All documents used in signing, executing, and closing an agreement. Procurement documentation may include documents predating the project.
Procurement Management Plan A component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside of the performing organization.
Procurement Statement of Work Describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results.
Procurement Strategy The approach by the buyer to determine the project delivery method and the type of legally binding agreement(s) that should be used to deliver the desired results.
Product An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item. Additional words for products are material and goods. See also deliverable.
Product Analysis For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, characteristics, and other relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured
Product Life Cycle The series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement.
Product Scope The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
Product Scope Description The documented narrative description of the product scope.
Program Related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities that are managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
Program Management The application of knowledge, skills, and principles to a program to achieve the program objectives and obtain benefits and control not available by managing program components individually.
Progressive Elaboration The iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a project management plan as greater amounts of information and more accurate estimates become available.
Project A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Project Calendar A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities.
Project Charter A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Communications Management Project Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation,distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and ultimate disposition of project information.
Project Cost Management Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so the project can be completed within the approved budget.
Project Funding Requirements Forecast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.
Project Governance The framework, functions, and processes that guide project management activities in order to create a unique product, service, or result to meet organizational, strategic, and operational goals.
Project Initiation Launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project.
Project Integration Management Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
Project Life Cycle The series of phases that a project passes through from its start to its completion.
Project Management The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Project Management Body of Knowledge A term that describes the knowledge within the profession of project management. The project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession.
Project Management Information System An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes.
Project Management Knowledge Area An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices,inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.
Project Management Office (PMO) A management structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques.
Project Management Plan The document that describes how the project will be executed,monitored and controlled, and closed.
Project Management Process Group A logical grouping of project management inputs,tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases.
Project Management System The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project.
Project Management Team The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. See also Project Team.
Project Manager (PM) The person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives.
Project Organization Chart A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.
Project Phase A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables.
Project Procurement Management Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.
Project Quality Management Project Quality Management includes the processes for incorporating the organization's quality policy regarding planning, managing, and controlling project and product quality requirements, in order to meet stakeholders' expectations.
Project Resource Management Project Resource Management includes the processes to identify, acquire, and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project.
Project Risk Management Project Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, response implementation, and monitoring risk on a project.
Project Schedule An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.
Project Schedule Management Project Schedule Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.
Project Schedule Network Diagram A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.
Project Scope The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
Project Scope Management Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
Project Scope Statement The description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
Project Stakeholder Management Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.
Project Team A set of individuals who support the project manager in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives. See also Project Management Team.
Project Team Directory A documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information.
Proposal Evaluation Techniques The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions
Prototypes A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
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