PMP Definitions: R

Many of the words defined here have broader, and in some cases different, dictionary definitions. In some cases, a single glossary term consists of multiple words (e.g., root cause analysis).

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Definitions: R
RACI Chart A common type of responsibility assignment matrix that uses responsible, accountable, consult, and inform statuses to define the involvement of stakeholders in project activities.
Regression Analysis An analytical technique where a series of input variables are examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a mathematical or statistical relationship.
Regulations Requirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable administrative provisions that have government-mandated compliance.
Request for Information (RFI) A type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability.
Request for Proposal (RFP) A type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Request for Quotation (RFQ) A type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services. Sometimes used in place of request for proposal and, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Requirement A condition or capability that is necessary to be present in a product, service, or result to satisfy a business need.
Requirements Documentation A description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.
Requirements Management Plan A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
Requirements Traceability Matrix A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
Reserve A provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk.Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated.
Reserve Analysis An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
Residual Risk The risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented.
Resource A team member or any physical item needed to complete the project
Resource Breakdown Structure A hierarchical representation of resources by category and type.
Resource Calendar A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts upon which each specific resource is available.
Resource Histogram A bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods.
Resource Leveling A resource optimization technique in which adjustments are made to the project schedule to optimize the allocation of resources and which may affect critical path. See also resource optimization technique and resource smoothing.
Resource Management Plan A component of the project management plan that describes show project resources are acquired, allocated, monitored, and controlled.
Resource Manager An individual with management authority over one or more resources.
Resource Optimization Technique A technique in which activity start and finish dates are adjusted to balance demand for resources with the available supply. See also resource leveling and resource smoothing.
Resource Requirements The types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Resource Smoothing A resource optimization technique in which free and total float are used without affecting the critical paths. See also resource leveling and resource optimization techniques.
Responsibility An assignment that can be delegated within a project management plan such that the assigned resource incurs a duty to perform the requirements of the assignment.
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) A grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.
Result An output from performing project management processes and activities. Results include outcomes (e.g., integrated systems, revised process, restructured organization, tests, trained personnel, etc.) and documents (e.g., policies, plans, studies, procedures,specifications, reports, etc.). See also deliverable.
Rework Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into compliance with requirements or specifications.
Risk An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives.
Risk Acceptance A risk response strategy whereby the project team decides to acknowledge the risk and not take any action unless the risk occurs.
Risk Appetite The degree of uncertainty an organization or individual is willing to accept in anticipation of a reward.
Risk Audit A type of audit used to consider the effectiveness of the risk management process.
Risk Avoidance A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to eliminate the threat or protect the project from its impact.
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) A hierarchical representation of potential sources of risks.
Risk Categorization Organization by sources of risk (e.g., using the RBS), the area of the project affected (e.g., using the WBS), or other useful category (e.g., project phase) to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.
Risk Category A group of potential causes of risk.
Risk Data Quality Assessment Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.
Risk Enhancement A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to increase the probability of occurrence or impact of an opportunity.
Risk Escalation A risk response strategy whereby the team acknowledges that a risk is outside of its sphere of influence and shifts the ownership of the risk to a higher level of the organization where it is more effectively managed.
Risk Exploiting A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to ensure that an opportunity occurs.
Risk Exposure An aggregate measure of the potential impact of all risks at any given point in time in a project, program, or portfolio.
Risk Management Plan A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.
Risk Mitigation A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to decrease the probability of occurrence or impact of a threat.
Risk Owner The person responsible for monitoring the risks and for selecting and implementing an appropriate risk response strategy.
Risk Register A repository in which outputs of risk management processes are recorded.
Risk Report A project document developed progressively throughout the Project Risk Management processes, which summarizes information on individual project risks and the level of overall project risk.
Risk Review A meeting to examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with overall project risk and with identified individual project risks.
Risk Sharing A risk response strategy whereby the project team allocates ownership of an opportunity to a third party who is best able to capture the benefit of that opportunity.
Risk Threshold The level of risk exposure above which risks are addressed and below which risks may be accepted.
Risk Transference A risk response strategy whereby the project team shifts the impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response.
Role A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting, or coding.
Rolling Wave Planning An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
Root Cause Analysis An analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance or a defect or a risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance or defect or risk.
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